After the WTO's "Doha Round" negotiations stalled, the Free Trade Area (FTA) became the realistic choice and main carrier for countries to promote trade liberalization. Under the framework of the free trade zone, goods and services originating in the zone can enjoy more preferential and even zero tariff rates, thereby promoting the growth of trade and welfare in the zone. In China, accelerating the implementation of the free trade zone strategy is an important part of the new round of opening up. The Third Plenary Session of the Eighteenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China proposed to accelerate the implementation of the free trade zone strategy based on the surrounding areas, and form a global high-standard free trade zone network. Accelerating the implementation of the free trade zone strategy and playing a role in promoting trade and investment will not only help Chinese enterprises explore international markets, inject new impetus, add new vitality, and expand new space for China's economic development; it will also help strengthen China International competitiveness, giving more Chinese voices and injecting Chinese elements in the formulation of international rules to continue and expand China's development interests.
Under the guidance of General Secretary Xi Jinping's important speech on accelerating the implementation of the free trade zone strategy, China's regional economic integration has developed rapidly, and the construction of the free trade zone has entered a fast track. . From the current point of view, the regions with high utilization rates of domestic free trade agreements are mainly concentrated in developed provinces and cities along the eastern coast. Taking the China-Switzerland Free Trade Agreement as an example, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shanghai and Fujian are the five regions with the highest amount of Swiss exports to China, with exports accounting for 83% of the country's total exports. At the same time, these 5 regions are the regions where the amount of China-Swiss preferential origin certificates is the highest, with 84% of the national total. Obviously, in such areas, a virtuous circle has formed between the use of preferential policies of the FTA and the promotion of foreign trade growth. In sharp contrast to this, Guizhou ranks higher than Gansu and Qinghai in terms of the proportion of Guizhou-Swiss preferential origin certificates applied for Guizhou-Swiss preferential origin certificates. The possible reasons are: first, Guizhou's export-oriented economy develops slowly and its foreign trade volume is low, which makes the province lack of information on free trade zone preferences and insufficient attention; second, the province's expertise in foreign trade There are not enough talents to provide accurate policy preferential consulting services for trading companies. Nowadays, in the face of the constantly increasing free trade agreements and continuous blowouts of free trade preferences, Guizhou can no longer "empty hands" and miss opportunities. It must find solutions to increase the utilization of the free trade agreements and promote foreign trade and economic growth. Specifically, Guizhou should focus on strengthening the following areas:
Strengthen the research on the provisions of China's existing free trade agreement to find out where the opportunities that Guizhou can take advantage of. A free trade agreement is a legally binding contract between two or more countries to promote economic and trade development. It covers trade in goods, rules of origin, trade facilitation measures, trade remedies, technical barriers to trade, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, Trade in services, investment promotion, intellectual property protection, environmental issues, economic and technological cooperation and dispute settlement clauses. Taking the trade in goods as an example, the FTA, while listing preferential tariff rates, has also restricted the preferential claim eligibility for products in the region through rules of origin. In addition, the preferential policies provided by the respective trade agreements are also different, each with its own emphasis. Therefore, for Guizhou, it is necessary to carry out a study of the provisions of China's existing free trade agreement as soon as possible, and conduct a comprehensive review and comparison of the policy preferences and restrictions provided by the existing free trade agreement. Based on this, combined with the actual characteristics of Guizhou's industrial economy and trade economy development, evaluate the difficulty of Guizhou's use of FTA preferences, and find out the key directions for Guizhou to use the existing FTA policy preferences.
Strengthen the use of existing free trade agreements to evaluate the trade and welfare effects of key industries and products in Guizhou, and provide theoretical support for expanding Guizhou's development interests and issuing Guizhou's voice. Free trade agreement preferential policies have a significant "accelerator" effect on intraregional trade. At present, trade frictions and cooperation among countries alternate, and multiple games and trade negotiations will continue. The setting of relevant preferential terms is a key issue for countries to calculate the cost of benefits and coordinate their positions. Therefore, Guizhou should carry out an assessment study on the welfare impact of the existing free trade agreement on key industries, products such as specialty agricultural products and food trade and employment in Guizhou as soon as possible, and conduct a systematic and in-depth study of the benefits and losses of Guizhou under the existing free trade agreement framework. Research and judgment to provide decision-making reference for the country's position on the setting of preferential terms in the next round of FTA negotiations.
We will strengthen consulting services on free trade agreements for enterprises and expand the use of free trade agreements. Existing research has found that poor business conditions such as "lack of FTA information" and "complex application procedures and time-consuming applications for certificates of origin" are the main factors preventing China's export companies from using the FTA. In addition, exporting companies have a strong demand for government advisory services on free trade agreements. Here, we suggest that relevant departments should start the research on improving the preferential utilization rate of Guizhou Province's export enterprises' FTAs as soon as possible, adopting questionnaires and other methods to understand the use of FTAs by the export enterprises in the province, and the use of FTAs. Investigation and analysis of the economic benefits, costs and obstacles, and government services to find out the problems, difficulties and deficiencies encountered by Guizhou Province's export enterprises in using the preferential policies of the FTA, and then take targeted measures, such as through WeChat public service number , Telephone consultation lines and expert online answers, etc., to strengthen the consulting services on FTA policies and utilization, simplify the process for enterprises to apply for free trade preferential certificate of origin, and reduce the administration of export enterprises in the province to use the FTA. Cost, increase the utilization of FTA by enterprises, and expand the effectiveness of FTA utilization.